How to make website Dark mode

This tutorial will show you how to make your website dark mode. This dark mode will make it easier on the eyes and will make the website easier on the eyes. This dark mode is pretty easy to implement, and it will make any website more visually appealing. How to make website Dark mode – HTML CSS tutorials – Project

There are many different design trends that are going around these days. CSS and HTML is one of the most creative, and there are tutorials that offer an array of creative designs. For example, there are tutorials that offer dark mode, animations, and many more. This tutorial will look at how to make your website go into dark mode.

Graph Algorithms Book!

My first book Graph Algorithms was published on October 8. The book is written for those who want to learn graph theory from scratch.

table of contents

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Graph Theory

Chapter 2 – Presentation of Graphs

Chapter 3 – Breadth First Search

Chapter 4 – Dijkstra Algorithm

Chapter 5 – Floyd Warshall Algorithm

Chapter 6 – Disjoint Set

Chapter 7 – Minimum Spanning Tree

Chapter 8 – Topological Sorting

Chapter 9 – Bellman Ford Algorithm

Chapter 10 – Stable Marriage

Chapter 11 – Depth First Search

Chapter 12 – Articulation Point and Bridge

Chapter 13 – Strongly Connected Components

Chapter 14 – Maximum Flow

The sudocode used in this book is available on GitHub.

The book is available at Haque, Rana and Manik Libraries in Neelkhet. The easiest way to get the book at home in Dhaka or outside Dhaka is to order it on The price written on the cover of the book is Tk 220 but can be found at 15% or more discount depending on the store.

Graph Algorithms Book on Goodreads

Happy Coding!

Data Structures: Queues and Circular Queues

A queue is a basic data structure. You can think of it like a bus line, the person standing in front of everyone gets on first, if a new passenger gets in the back of the line.

Queue has two types of operations. Enqueue means adding a new element to the queue and Dequeue or Pop means removing the oldest element from the queue.

Using arrays we can implement fixed size queues. We always need to keep two pointers, Head (Head) pointer will indicate the position of the front element of the queue and Tail (Tail) pointer will indicate the position of the back element. At the very beginning you can put Head = -1, Tail = -1. Each time an element is enqueued, the tail must be advanced one position to place the new element at that position. When DQing only the head should be moved one step forward. A simulation will make this clear:

Note that the head moves in front of the tail after the last element is dequeued. There is no problem, Head > Tail or Head = -1 means the queue is completely empty.

How to make website Dark mode – HTML CSS tutorials – Project

A maximum of 5 elements can be placed in the upper queue. But there is a bigger problem. Head or Tail is always preempted and there is no way to re-use the empty space in the array when dequeuing! In the last step, Tail = 2, even though the queue is empty. That means the first 3 positions can no longer be used. For this reason, queues are never implemented in practice in this way, otherwise they will not maximize memory usage.

One solution is to use linked lists. The first advantage of using a linked list is that the size of the queue does not need to be fixed. Another advantage is that when you dequeue, you can delete the element that the tail pointer is pointing to from memory. Let’s see a simulation using linked list.

We can see that there is no memory waste here.

Implementing queues even with fixed size arrays in a way that doesn’t waste memory. This is called a circular queue which looks something like this:

In circular queue you can start enqueue at any position, for example I have taken index number 2 as the starting point. After enqueuing queues 10, 20 and 30 as before it should look like this:

  queue33dqueue will do the same:

queue35 Now assume the queue is completely full:

Now if you want to enqueue another new element then depending on your need two types of events can happen. The enqueue function may return an error that the space is not free. Or you can discard the oldest element and replace it with the newest element, this is called a circular buffer.

Now the question is how to understand that the circular cue is full or not? If the cue is full, the position of the tail must be one step behind the head.

There is another type of cue called double ended cue. Elements can be inserted on either side of a double-ended queue, and popped from either side. I discussed an interesting problem that can be solved with double-ended queues in the article on sliding range minimum queries.

There is another type of queue called priority queue. Each element there has a priority, the one with higher priority is popped first when popped. To implement the priority queue, you need to know about the heap data structure, I will discuss that another day.

The most common use of Q in programming contests is Breathed First Search. Dijkstra algorithm is implemented using priority queue. Again operating systems use different types of queues for task scheduling.

Every major programming language has a queue library that makes using queues very easy. But you must implement yourself while learning, or you won’t understand how cues work.

That’s it for today, happy coding!

Before applying Fleury’s algorithm to the graph, we need to check the degrees of the nodes to find out whether there is an Euler circuit in the graph or not. If there is an Euler circuit then we can start the search from any node, if there is an Euler path then we have to start from the first node. How to understand which is the first node? Any node in an undirected graph whose degree is odd can be taken as the start node. A node whose outdegree is greater than 1 in the directed graph is the starting node of the Euler path.

How to make website Dark mode – HTML CSS tutorials – Project

Another type of frustration comes from competitive programming. Those who take programming contests seriously have already gotten over the initial disappointment, but the problem is that as they progress, many become disillusioned and quit programming.

It is true that to be a good programmer one must know basic things like Algorithms, Data Structures well and the best way to know them well is to solve programming contest problems. But contesting is quite stressful, not everyone likes such a competitive environment and there is nothing wrong with that. In this case I would say that even if you don’t contest seriously, just to learn or for fun sometimes solve problems on different sites, no need to compete with anyone or worry about ratings.

You can solve problems in Online Juz without competing, if you talk to many senior software engineers, you will see that even if they are not competing, they solve problems sometimes just to keep their heads sharp. Your friend has solved 300 problems in codeforces, you don’t need to be disappointed seeing that you haven’t done even 10 yet, just move forward at your own pace and always try to learn. In the end, life is not a competition, in a software company you have to cooperate with everyone, not a competition. Again like to contest without looking but don’t underestimate the algorithm.

How to make website Dark mode – HTML CSS tutorials – Project

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